Dr Samar Mubarakmand and Thar Coal Project .

Dr Samar Mubarakmand 

Born in Rawalpindi, Pakistan
on 17th September 1942
Saint Anthony�s High School, Lahore: Matriculation, 1956; Govt. College Lahore: M.Sc (Physics), 1962; University of Oxford, England: D.Phil. (Experimental Nuclear Physics), 1966.

Member, Science & Technology, Planning commission, Government of Pakistan, 2008 to date; Special Assistant to the Prime minister of Pakistan on Science & Technology, 2007-2008; Founding Chairman, National Engineering & Scientific Commission (NESCOM), 2001-2007; Member Technical, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), 1995-2000; Director General, PAEC, 1994-1995; Director, PAEC, 1985-1994; Chief Scientific Officer, PAEC 1979-1985; Principal Scientific Officer, PAEC, 1973-1979; Senior Scientific Officer, PAEC, 1966-1973; Scientific Officer, PAEC, 1962- 1966.

Nishan-i-Imtiaz 2003, Hilal-i-lmtiaz 1998, Sitara-i-Imtiaz 1992; Dr. Nazir Ahmad Award, 2005; International Scientist of the Year 2007.

Life Member, Pakistan Nuclear Society; Founding Member, Society for Promotion of Engineering Sciences & Technology in Pakistan (SOPREST) and board of Governors, GIK Institute, TOPI; Life Patron & Member, Board of Governors of Al-Shifa Trust; Member: Board of Governors, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology; Selection Board , Quaid-e-Azam University; Board of Governors, Muhammad Ali Jinnah University; Board of Governors, FAST University; Council of Pakistan Academy of Sciences, 2006-2008; Steering Committee, Higher Education Commission (HEC).

Nuclear Instrumentation, Fiber Optics, Application of LASERS, Nuclear Weapon Systems, Nuclear Diagnostics, MissileTechnology.

Thar Coal Project .

Work is initiated on exploiting energy potential of coal reserves of Thar which will start producing electricity within two years, enough for next 40 years, without any single Second of Load Shedding.

These reserves of coal worth US $ 25 trillion can not only cater the electricity requirements of the country for next 100 years but also save almost four billion dollars in staggering oil import bill.

Renowned nuclear Scientist Dr. Samar Mubarak Mand said if all the oil reserves of Saudi Arab & Iran put together, these are approximately 375 Billion Barrels,but a single Thar coal reserve of Sindh is about 850 Trillion Cubic Feet,which is more than oil reserves of Saudi Arab & Iran.

He mentioned that these reserves estimated at 850 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas, are 30 times higher than Pakistan �s proven gas reserves of 28 TCF.

Dr. Samar Mubarak Mand said that just 2% usage of Thar coal can Produce 20,000 Mega Watts of electricity, adding if the whole reserves are utilized, then it could easily be imagined how much energy could be generated.

The coal power generation would cost Pakistan PKR 5.67 per unit while power generated by Independent Power Projects cost PKR 9.27, he went on to add.

He was of the view that it requires just Rs. 420 Billion initial investment,whereas Pakistan receives annually Rs. 1220 Billion from Tax Only.

He said federal government has released Rs 984.9 million for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) schemes being undertaken in Block V of Thar.

The scheme is aimed at producing coal gas for power generation he said, adding UCG is the most important clean coal technology of the future with worldwide application and a substitute for deep mining of coal for power generation.

Dr. Samar elaborated that the technology is based on an easy and simpler method of producing of coal gas instead of the difficult and time-consuming process of mining of coal lying in the depth of the deposits. 

Thar Coal Location.

1. Location and Accessibility:-
The Thar coalfield is approximately located between Latitudes 24�15�N and
25�45�N and Longitudes 69� 45�E and 70� 45�E in the southern part of Sindh Province in
the Survey of Pakistan topo-sheet Nos. 40 L/2,5 and 6. Based on available infrastructure
and favourable geology, the Geological Survey of Pakistan selected four blocks near
Islamkot for exploration and assessment of coal resources. The blocks with names, area
and coordinates are given in Table-1:-
S.No. Name/Blocks Area
Latitude Longitude
1. Sinhar Vikian Varvai, Block-I 122.00 24� 35�N to 24� 44�N 70� 12�E to 70� 18�E
2. Singharo Bhitro, Block-II 55.00 24� 44�N to 24� 51�N 70� 15�E to 70� 25�E
3. Saleh Jo Tar, Block � III 99.50 24� 49�N to 24� 58�N 70� 12�E to 70� 18�E
4. Sonalba, Block � IV 82.50 24� 41�N to 24� 48�N 70� 12�E to 70� 20�E

The area is accessible by a 410 kilometers metalled road form Karachi up to
Islamkot via Hyderabad-Mirpur Khas- Naukot and Thatta-Badin-Mithi-Islamkot. A road
network connecting all the major towns with Thar Coalfield have been developed. The
rail link from Hyderabad is up to Naukot, which is about 100 kilometers from Islamkot.

2. Relief, Topography and Climate
Thar coalfield is a part of the Thar Desert of Pakistan and is the 9th
largest desert
of the world. It is bounded in the north, east and south by India, in the west by flood
plains of the Indus River. The terrain is sandy and rough with sand dunes forming the
topography. The relief in the area varies between near sea level to more than 150
meters AMSL.
The climate is essentially that of an aid to semi arid region with scorching hot
summers and relatively cold winters. It is one of the most densely populated deserts of
the world with over 91 thousand inhabitants. The livelihood of the population is
dependent on agriculture and livestock.

3. Water Resources
The area is a part of the desert where precipitation is very little with a high rate of
evaporation. As such, limited water resources are of great significance.
The water is scanty and found in a few small �tarais� and artificially dug depressions
where rain water collects. These depressions generally consist of silty clay and caliche
The hydro-geological studies and drill hole geology shows the presence of three possible
aquifer zones at varying depths: (i) above the coal zone (ii) within the coal zone and (iii)
below the coal zone.
Drilling data has indicated three aquifers (water-bearing Zones) at an average
depth of 50 m, 120 m and more than 200 meters:
? One aquifer above the coal zone:
Ranges between 52.70 and 93.27 meters depth.
? Second aquifer with the coal zone at 120 meters depth:
Varying thickness up to 68.74 meters.
? Third aquifer below the coal zone at 200 metes depth:
Varying thickness up to 47 meters.
? Water quality is brackish to saline
4. Geology
The Thar coalfield area is covered by dune sand that extends to an average
depth of over 80 meters and rests upon a structural platform in the eastern part of the
desert. The generalized stratigraphic sequence in the Thar coalfield area is shown in
table. It comprises Basement Complex, coal bearing Bara Formation, alluvial deposits
and dune sand.

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